The cannabis plant has been used by humans for centuries. Although it is mostly used for recreational purposes, which is either smoked or consumed like cigarettes, in many countries it is permitted to be used for medical purposes. But how does it affect our brain? Three recent studies published in The Journal of Psychopharmacology, Neuro psycho pharmacology and the International Journal of Neuro psycho pharmacology have shown how it affects many cognitive patterns and psychological factors.
The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) reports that according to 2018 figures, about 192 million people between the ages of 15 and 64 worldwide use cannabis for recreational purposes. And about 35% of these users are between the ages of 18 and 25. This indicates that most users are young adults, whose brains are still developing, which can be affected by long-term cannabis use.
Tetrahydrocannabinol is an important psychological component in cannabis and the part of the brain that it affects is called the endocrine benign system, which contains receptors that react to the chemical constituents of this leaf. These receptors have a significant presence in the front of the brain and in the ‘limbic’ or peripheral parts, where the rewarding and stimulating systems are modulated.
They regulate dopamine, gamma aminobutyric acid, and glutamate in the brain. Cannabis use is legal in many countries what is the meaning of this? We know that dopamine is used for motivation, reward and learning. While glutamate and gamma aminobutyric acid work in cognitive processes, including memory and learning.
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These studies have shown that cannabis use can affect cognitive processing, especially among those who suffer from excessive cannabis use. These are the people who always want to use it to disrupt daily activities like work or study. An estimated 10% of cannabis users are diagnosed with the disease. In our research we were able to test about 39 people with this condition (they had to be clean on the day of the test) and we compared it with 20 people who have never or rarely used cannabis.
What was we were able to show that participants who had this condition had their Cambridge Neuropsychological test in memory tests of an automated battery (a test designed to assess the brain’s ability to retain data). Performance was poor compared to those who have seldom used it.
Excessive use also negatively affects ‘executive functions’, these are mental factors that include flexible thinking. It seems to be related to the age at which the person starts using the drug: the younger the age, the more affected the executive will be Cannabis use can affect memory
People who use the drug sparingly have also been found to have damage to the cognitive process. This is a group that can make more risky decisions than others and has more planning problems. Although much research has been done on men, there is evidence that their effects vary from sex to sex.
We have been told that while male users have poor memory and difficulty recognizing objects, women who use cannabis have more attention problems and also have problems with their work. These differences persist when the study is based on age, IQ, alcohol and nicotine consumption, mood and anxiety symptoms, emotional stability and habitual behavior.
Encouragement and mental health
Cannabis use affects how we feel, as well as the way we think. For example, some previous research suggests that when we use cannabis, our brain circuits, as well as our sense of reward and excitement, may be affected It can affect our performance at school or at work, and make us feel less motivated to work, and we see less rewards when we perform well.
In a recent study, we used an imaginative work, in which participants were scanned with a scanner when they saw blue and orange squares. If participants answered, they would receive a financial reward from Orange Squares. Most young people use cannabis This model helped us to understand how the brain responds to rewards.
We focus specifically on the ventral striatum, which is a key part of the brain’s reward system. We found that the effects on the reward system were very delicate and quite expected, and that cannabis use had a direct effect on the ventral striatum.
However, participants in our study were more likely to use cannabis in moderation. The effects may be more pronounced in chronic users. There is also evidence that cannabis can cause mental health problems. We have reported that it is related to ‘high anhydonia’, which is not to be felt in adolescents.
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The effect was felt with a specific frequency during the lockdown of Code-19. In addition to schizophrenia, cannabis use in adolescents is also thought to be a factor in the development of psychological problems. Research shows that moderate cannabis use increases the risk of psychological symptoms in adolescents, but has a greater effect on people with psychosis. Cannabis use has also been linked to cases of psychosis
We don’t really know why cannabis is associated with psychological problems, but several hypotheses suggest that dopamine and glutamate may play a role in the neurobiology of such conditions. Another study of 780 adolescents found that the link between cannabis use and psychological experiments was linked to a region of the brain called the ‘inks’.
It is located inside the parahypocampus (which is included in the memory) and the vulva bulb (which is involved in odor and fragrance processing), and contains a large number of cannabinoid receptors. Ultimately, the scientific and psychological effects of cannabis use may depend to some extent on its diet, sex, genetic predisposition, and age of use.
But we need to determine whether these effects are temporary or permanent. An article states that after moderate use of cannabis, its effects can be weakened if it is not used for some time. But even if that happens, it is important to think about the effects that long-term use can have on our minds, especially on the minds of young people whose brains are still developing.